|Caligula: The God 37-41 AD|
|Early in 40 AD, Caligula joined with the Rhine armies, and marched into Gaul (France), and plundered it's inhabitants thoroughly. He received
surrender of Adminius at Channel. Caligula then marched his troops to
the Northern shoreline of Gaul, as a prelude to the invasion of Britain,
but instead he ordered his men to collect seashells in thier helmets.
Caligula called these the spoils of the conquered ocean.
Early in 40 AD-Ptolemy summoned to Rome
Spring of 40 AD-Caligula persued his pretensions to divinity further by
ordering his statue to be erected in the Temple at Jerusalem. He bore a
grudge for being ignored by the Jews, as they would not honor him as a
Divine. Caligula sent his legate, Petronius, to Syria, and told him to lead a force into Judea, and erect a statue of Caligula, either by force or
willingly. However, Herod Agrippa was able to talk Caligula out of this
potentially disastrous order before Petronius could act on the order.
When word of this proposed order got to Jerulsalem, the people there
were ready to bear arms against Rome and revolt. Even Tiberius had
never attempted that manouvre!
|Two of Caligula's pleasure barges ended up at the bottom of Lake Nemi, in central Italy, 24 KM southeast of Rome. One boat was 210 ft by 66 ft, and the other was 233 ft by 80 ft. Many of the items found on the ships are now in museums, but the ships themselves (after being raised in 1929) were destroyed in the second world war. Below is a picture after one of the boats was saved from the lake. The lake was drained in order to retrieve the boats.|
|March 18th 37 AD-Caligula is hailed as Imperator by the Senate|
|March 28th 37 AD-Caligula enters Rome after 6 years at Capri.
March 29th 37 AD-Caligula granted powers by the Senate
|April 37 AD-Caligula recovers the remains of his mother Agrippina, and
his elder brother Nero.
|April 21st 37 AD-Formal confirmation of Caligula's powers
May 1st 37 AD-The death of Antonia, Caligula's grandmother
|July 1 37 AD-Caligula enters his first Consulship. (For 2 months)
August 30th 37 AD-Dedication of the Temple Augustus
September 21st 37 AD-Title of Pater Patriae granted to Caligula by
|After September 21st 37 AD-Caligula falls ill.
Late October 37 AD-Caligula recovers
|End of 37 AD-The deaths of Gemellus and Marcus Junius Silanus.|
|End of 37 AD-Caligula takes his second wife, Livia Orestilla, the wife
of Gaius Calpurnius Piso. In the movie, "Caligula", Livia's husband is
called "Proculus". Livia is played by Mirella D'Angelo and Proculus
by Donato Placido.
|38 AD-Caligula abolishes sales tax
-He also restores elections to the people
Early in 38 AD-The deaths of Macro and his wife
|June 10th 38 AD-The death of Julia Drusilla, Caligula's favorite sister.
It is believed that Caligula caused her death. She was 27 years old,
if indeed she was born on April 4th 11 AD.
|August 38 AD-The arrival of Herod Agrippa in Alexandria. Following
of which there are disturbances in that city.
|Summer 38 AD-Caligula sleeps with Nymphidia, the daughter of
Callistus. She gives birth to a son about 39 AD, Gaius Nymphidius
Sabinus, who lived until 68 AD. Nymphidius never denied being
the son of Caligula.
|September 23 38 AD-Caligula consecrates Drusilla|
|September 38 AD-Caligula takes as his third wife, Lollia Paulina, the
wife of Publius Memmius Regulus. They were divorced within a
couple of months, Caligula said because she was barren, but the
truth was that he had just grown tired of her. They were divorced
in the spring of 39 AD, and afterwards he forbade her to have
intercourse with any men so it didn't look like he was infertile.
|October 38 AD-Flaccus is arrested and banished. Flaccus finds
support with Marcus Aemilus Lepidus.
|October 21st 38 AD-Fire in the Aemilian District|
|Jan 1st 39 AD-Caligula enters his second Consulship. (30 days)|
|Early 39 AD-Caligula denounces the Senate
-Restoration of Maiestas Charge
|Spring 39 AD-Caligula takes as his fourth wife, Milonia Caesonia. She
was the daughter of Vistilia, a woman married six times. She was
decended from a Vistilia who was a public prostitute. Caesonia was 7 years older than Caligula, and already had 3 daughters. One
month later she gave birth in Rome to an heir, a daughter, Julia
Drusilla. In Caesonia Caligula found his true soul-mate, and he was
proud of her. He was known to show her off nude to his friends.
|Summer 39 AD-Caligula builds his bridge at Baiae, over the Bay of
Naples. This was a demonstration of how completely he controlled
affairs in Rome.
-Imperial control of Legio II (Africa)
|After Sept 3 39 AD-Two Consuls removed from the Senate, breaking
thier fasces, or symbols of office. One of the consuls was Gnaeus
Dominitius Corbulo, and the other killed himself. Interestingly
enough, Corbulo was the 5th husband of Vistilia. The 2 Consuls
that replaced them were Gnaeus Dominitius Afer and Aulus Didius
|Before October 27th 39 AD
-Prosecution of Sabinus, the Govenor of Pannonia
-The execution of Lepidus, the widower of Drusilla, and a
former lover of Caligula.
-The departure of Caligula to Mevania
-Gaetulicus exposed and probably executed
-Galba appointed to Upper Germany
-Caligula's sister's, Agrippina (age 24) and Julia Livilla (age 21), are banished.
-Gaius Ofonius Tigellinus exiled for adultery with Agrippina,
Julia Livilla, and thier respective husbands! Tigellinus would
make a comeback under Nero about 62 AD.
-Caligula departs for the North
|After October 27th 39 AD
-Further Maiestas Trials in Rome
-Caligula meets first Senatorial Deputation in Lyons
|Winter of 39/40 AD-Alexandrian envoys leave for Rome
-Disturbances at Jamnia
|Jan 1st 40 AD-Caligula enters his Third Consulship (12 days)|
|Early 41 AD-Even the Roman Populace has grown weary of this
seemingly mad and unpredictable tyrant.
|May 40 AD-Caligula receives his second Senatorial Deputation
End of May 40 AD-Caligula in the vicinity of Rome.
-First meeting with Alexandrian seputation.
|Summer 40 AD-Caligula in Campania
-Meeting with Herod Antipas
-Return of Herod Aggrippa to Rome.
-Ptolemy executed in Rome
-Rebellion in Mauretania
|August 31st 40 AD-Entry into Rome, and Ovation.|
|After August 31st 40 AD-Second meeting with Alexandrian
Deputation. Caligula imposes new taxes in Rome.
|Late in year 40 AD-Execution of suspected conspirators|
|Jan 1st 41 AD-Caligula enters his fourth Consulship. (6 days)|
|January 24th 41 AD-Caligula is assassinated during Ludi Palatini.
His wife Caesonia is also killed, as well as thier 2 year old daughter,
Julia Drusilla, who's head is bashed against the steps.
|Herodias was the sister of Herod Agrippa and the wife of Herod Antipas (The son of Herod the Great). In the summer of 40 AD Herod Antipas visited Caligula in Campania with the hopes of being made a King of Galilee and Peraea. Instead, based on damaging evidence supplied by Agrippa, Antipas was exiled to Lyons. Herodias was spared, but nobly chose exile with her husband. Herod Antipas was called a "fox" by Jesus Christ. Antipas left his wife, the daughter of Aretas, to marry Herodias.|